One kind of determinism, genetic fixity, is illustrated powerfully by the example of the digger wasp, Sphex ichneumoneus:
When the time comes for egg laying, the wasp Sphex builds a burrow for the purpose and seeks out a cricket which she stings in such a way as to paralyze but not kill it. She drags the cricket into the burrow, lays her eggs alongside, closes the burrow, then flies away, never to return. In due course, the eggs hatch and the wasp grubs feed off the paralyzed cricket, which has not decayed, having been kept in the wasp equivalent of deep freeze. To the human mind, such an elaborately organized and seemingly purposeful routine conveys a convincing flavor of logic and thoughtfulness--until more details are examined. For example, the Wasp's routine is to bring the paralyzed cricket to the burrow, leave it on the threshold, go inside to see that all is well, emerge, and then drag the cricket in. If the cricket is moved a few inches away while the wasp is inside making her preliminary inspection, the wasp, on emerging from the burrow, will bring the cricket back to the threshold, but not inside, and will then repeat the preparatory procedure of entering the burrow to see that everything is all right. If again the cricket is removed a few inchies while the wasp is inside, once again she will move the cricket up to the threshold and re-enter the burrow for a final check. The wasp never thinks of pulling the cricket straight in. On one occasion this procedure was repeated forty times, always with the same result. (Woodridge, 1963, p. 82)
Dennett (1996), following Hofstadter (1982), calls this kind of very simply determined behavior sphexish, but believes that too much has been made of emblematic stories (or intuition pumps) like the one above, because human behavior is much more complexly determined.


Dennett, D. C. (1996). Elbow room: The varieties of free will worth wanting. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hofstadter, D. R. (1982). Can creativity be mechanized? Scientific American, 247, 20-29.

Woodridge, D. (1963). The machinary of the brain. New York: McGraw Hill.

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