Justificationists believe that knowledge has foundations. René Descartes, with his "indubitable" clear and distinct ideas, and David Hume, with his "incorrigible" sensory experiences, were justificationists, as are some religious people, who hold "infallible" sacred writings or revelatory events to be the foundation of all valid religious beliefs. Recent justificationists include the logical positivists (or logical empiricists), such as Rudolf Carnap, who believe that observation statements are the foundation of all meaningful concepts.
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